Indigenous Literatures in Canada



The effect of authors and poets in explaining different themes and contributing meaning for real life situations has been substantial. These developments in multiple fields have been contributing enough to reclaim the position and continuum of identities associated with different culture. This elaboration of ideas outlines the works of Gregory Scofield and Beth Brant to analyze use of animals in their works.

 There is a considerable amount of justification present according to the information that the poetic work of both Gregory Scofield and Beth Brant represent identity with the implementation of animals. Identity is a virtue through which people can relate to one another, what highlights their capabilities and notions. In most of the readings and writings, there is an element of personal identity with cultural identity present. Cultural identity signifies the person’s background and their heritage explanation. As both of these authors have different values and representations in terms of understanding the heritage and beliefs, their interpretation and explanation points are just as distinctive. Sometimes, having the background they grew up with was not consistent enough and replaced by the governmental applications and reflections. For instance, in case of multiple Native American identities and formulations of tribal people, notions of governmental tendencies have been differentiated.

 Beth Brand and Gregory Scofield identify these consistent changes with loss of personal sense and reflection. In their work, dual meaning of certain classes and categories of individuals is found to project how particular classes are judged severely by society and how such remarks turn into mistreatment and harsh prejudices.


 Discussing the work of Beth Brant, addressing of ‘Coyote Learns a New Trick’ can be useful enough. With the applications of morphology, appearance, and adorning of a personal self, he has mentioned one of the key functions in his indigenous approaches. He reclaims the two-spirit identity of individuals highlighting the dynamic nature of the evolutionary measures that have contributed to the situation. In an important manner, he has illustrated the importance of recognition and identification along with the negotiation of two-spirits.

 An indigenous structure of self has involved strict regulation since contact, both in definition of mobility and agency. His explanations point to the fact that appearance can display indigenous perceptions of individuals and just how misinterpretations can take place. Morphologically, an understanding can be formed between decorations of the body in commencing two spirit identities. This perspective can be regarded and developed by Beth Brand with her Coyote character in the short story ‘Coyote Learns a New Trick.’ In the story, clothing can be considered as new and structural identification of ideas and components, challenging what can be fundamentally categorized as ‘female’ or ‘male’ clothing. Coyote is shown making her own clothes and according to the descriptions provided by Brand, they are rather of male origin (Brant 50). It allows the reader to have an idea of cross-dressing notion on Coyote, thereby creating an awareness of the gendered misconceptions of what representations clothing has.

However, while Coyote is creating the clothing form for a trick that requires her to be transformed as male, she is also essentially the originating point of the clothing, making the idea to be hers, a perspective Brant made purposefully (Brant 78). He greatly depends on the regulated gendering of clothing to be translated as comprehensive element of subdivision, or with the example of Coyote, as deception and trickery. Brant also manipulates the idea of what is shown by male clothing as she shares insight with careful selection of words. She designates two differentiating characteristics that are not usually linked with males. Although Coyote’s significant transformation and Fox’s reaction to it is all what the reader can imagine for the purpose of defining the gender, Brant does not exclusively mention that the clothes are male, simply that they were kept in such fashion for Fox’s response. This was probably a derivation to challenge reader’s understanding of different clothing translations genders have. The body Coyote has reflects and retains a neutral gender, as it must effectively be associated with either ‘female’ or ‘male’ clothing in order to be captivated as a significant idea.

 These representations are only there to bring about a mutual understanding of the personality differences between males and females. The stereotypical behavior and expectation that is present commonly among individuals is to be highlighted in order to have a reasonable explanation (Brant 80). A contributing mechanism is present for the appearance and how it relates to the inner thoughts and feelings. In dealing with two-spirited notions, she has considerably provided the idea of self-worth and calculating those qualities for future representations.

 Another elaboration can be provided with the poems of Gregory Scofield in which he depicts how the politics of visual identification and body with a specific gender influences the lives of those perceiving outside perceptions of the Western understanding of gender. Using ‘I Used To Be Scared (on Turtle Island),’ Scofield provides explanations that the first two-spirit didn’t show its true characteristics because the Great Mystery was to get out of confusions and deliberate misconceptions. According to his explanations, individuals were living on the Turtle Island for a particular reason, and it did not involve just hanging around the city, being desperate for approval or acceptance of others (Scofield 100). His writings have an important representation that two-spirits have had the politicization of identities and bodies by influences of colonial times: first as indigenous individuals, second as being gender distinct.

 Scofield provides responses and deliberations of two-spirits notions as spiritual and sacred beings. His explanations stray from making important accusations regarding routine issues that two-spirits must coordinate. In his opinions, such individuals have been publically forgotten and oppressed; most importantly, they are not highlighted enough to be given importance (Scofield 100). A substantial addition to this assertion is that two-spirits are not to be taken for granted or for the society to pity. They are instead whole, complete and spiritual identities that are aware of their social place and norms. Even though it is difficult for people to derive meaningful explanation of their presence and living structure, their worth and overall nurturing is of useful approach.

 Scofield also provides a challenging notion of closeted desires that individuals have in his poems. His specific indications are provided towards hidden sexual desires and their association to bodies. These references also come up in ‘I Used to Be Sacred (on Turtle Island)’ regarding how two-personalities must be in alignment with one another or they will be discriminated because of the apparent gender distinction (Scofield 121). In a literal sense, the emerging narrative and artistic representations of two-spirits performs exactly with the suggestions provided by the author. Remaining true to the roots and historic representations, it combines the two-spirits in a confident manner instead of apologizing, depending or legitimatizing its existence.

 The representations and explanations provide the politics involved with tricksterism as well. Brant, and to some extent, Scofield implement the ideas of this figurative expression to approach their objectives in restating the identity of two-spirits. This is not to represent that either author completely relies on the two but simply interlinks the two to represent, as contrary to explain, the two-spirit identity. Brant uses the Coyote as an indigenous figure of trickster nature in a modern comprehension and Scofield does to with the help of explaining the complicated and disrupted nature of the individualized personifications.

 This argument is commutatively arranged and significantly approaches the non-indigenous and indigenous individuals for an appropriate understanding. The illustrations define important narrations from real life examples to show the value and worth of chosen figures and different functionalities.


 The author has confirmed the process of individuality and cultural significance through these thematic prospects. For these two stories, renaming is a sign of leaving behind their true selves and taking on a new personification despite being true to their roots. As their names passed down through four generations, there is still some significance left. However a belief of oppression shows a complicated lack of understanding.

The comprehension of the concept provides an insight on the links between personalities of different generations and their consistent legacy, as signified in the quilts they derive together. This connection between generations is supportive, yet the arrival of character and the lack of comprehending the history show that those relationships are quite vulnerable as well. The appearance represents a private space without shortcomings and regrets that have infiltrated two spirited personalities.

 Materialism and family heritage are themes that have been intertwined in a comprehensive and effective manner. Some characters wants things from their childhood memories while others want to replace them for monetary value and for the cause of owning substantial goods. The story also identifies the generalizations of learning and schooling in an adequate manner. Love and pride are the two emotions that have been selected as important for the conceptualization and definitive explanations. A comparison is also created for the materialized wealth and traditional values in characters. There is an effectual discussion present for the preservation of ideas and background beliefs. These can be compared and contrasted with modern literature for specific meanings as well.